Spodoptera frugiperda

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Nom binominal

Spodoptera frugiperda
J. E. Smith, 1797

Spodoptera frugiperda (légionnaire d’automne ou noctuelle américaine du maïs), est un papillon de l’ordre des Lepidoptereae et de la famille des Noctuidae polyphyllophage, originaire du continent américain. La chenille est connue pour ses dégâts sur le maïs et sur le coton (respectivement Zea sp. et Gossypium sp.) posant de grandes difficultés en exploitation.

L’aire de répartition de Spodoptera frugiperda comprend la quasi-totalité du continent américain, à l’exception de ses régions les plus froides. L’espèce, adaptée aux régions de climat tropical, est établie au Mexique et dans la partie sud des États-Unis, en Amérique centrale et en Amérique du Sud, de la Colombie à l’Argentine et au Chili, jusqu’à une latitude de 36° Sud. Elle est également présente en fin d’été et en automne dans le nord des États-Unis et dans les provinces méridionales du Canada par suite d’une migration annuelle.

Cette espèce, absente de l’ancien monde, est classée comme organisme de quarantaine par l’organisation européenne et méditerranéenne pour la protection des plantes (OEPP).

Les œufs du genre spodoptera sont particuliers car groupés et recouverts d’écailles, ce qui rend difficile le traitement à ce stade. De même il existe peu d’auxiliaires à ce stade du développement de l’insecte, car le parasitisme par ponte est lui aussi compliqué.

C’est le stade le plus redouté par les agriculteurs d’Amérique du Sud, étant le stade ravageur. La chenille est bien reconnaissable à sa morphologie caractéristique : d’environ 3 cm de long, de teinte allant de la couleur « café » au jaune, elle présente un ensemble de lignes parallèles brunes du bout de l’abdomen à la tête, dont deux se réunissant sur la tête forment un Y caractéristique.

Les cellules de Spodoptera frugiperda sont couramment utilisées dans l’expression de protéines recombinantes grâce à des virus spécifiques des insectes nommés baculovirus.

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NGC 3621

NGC 3621 is a field spiral galaxy about 22 Mly (6.7 Mpc) away in the constellation of Hydra (The Sea Snake). It is comparatively bright and can be well seen in moderate-sized telescopes. The galaxy is around 93,000 ly (29,000 pc) across and is inclined at an angle of 25° from being viewed edge on. It shines with a luminosity equal to 13 billion times that of the Sun. The morphological classification is SA(s)d, which indicates this is an ordinary spiral with loosely wound arms. There is no evidence for a bulge. Although it appears to be isolated, NGC 3621 belongs to the Leo spur.

This galaxy has an active nucleus that matches a Seyfert 2 optical spectrum, suggesting that a low mass supermassive black hole is present at the core. Based upon the motion of stars in the nucleus, this object may have a mass of up to three million times the mass of the Sun.

Part of NGC 3621 obtained with Very Large Telescope, and a wide-angle image with the Wide-Field Imager at La Silla Observatory.

ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) image of NGC 3621.

Jill Summers

Honour Margaret Rosell Santoi Fuller, better known as Jill Summers (8 December 1910 – 11 January 1997), was a British music hall performer and comedian. Her career in entertainment lasted eighty years and in later life she achieved stardom as Phyllis Pearce, in Granada Television’s long-running soap opera Coronation Street.

Summers was born in Eccles, Lancashire. She first performed on stage aged six, in a comedy double act with her brother Tom. When her mother died when she was only 13, she went to work in a cotton mill. Later she ran a combined hairdresser’s and newsagent’s with her first husband (who was more than 20 years older than she was). He died only a few years into their marriage.

During World War II, she entertained troops as part of ENSA, and was known as Lancashire Comedienne Jill Summers, the Pin-Up Girl of British Railways. Most of her variety material was written by her second husband, Dr Clifford Simpson-Smith, with whom she stayed married until his death in 1986. She became a comedian when she tripped up on stage and swore, which the audience lapped up.

Summers first appeared in Coronation Street (very briefly) in 1972, playing Bessie Proctor, a cleaner with Hilda Ogden. In 1982, she reappeared as Phyllis Pearce, a blue rinsed pensioner, forever lusting after pompous ex-serviceman Percy Sugden. She starred in the series until her death in 1997.

Other appearances by Summers include Agatha (alongside Dustin Hoffman and Vanessa Redgrave), Play For Today, Sez Lez (with Les Dawson), Ready When You Are, Mr McGill, and performing a Victoria Wood scripted monologue in 1982’s Wood and Walters, as well as appearing in her TV play Nearly A Happy Ending.

Summers died of kidney failure in January 1997. In their autobiographies, released in different years, former Coronation Street stars Jean Alexander, Bill Waddington, Lynne Perrie, Julie Goodyear and Amanda Barrie described Jill as a true professional actress who was witty, hilarious and outspokenly funny.


Battleworld is the name of a fictional patchwork planet in Marvel Comics.

The first Battleworld debuted in the Secret Wars crossover where it was created by Jim Shooter and Mike Zeck.

The second Battleworld debuted in Beyond! and was created by Dwayne McDuffie and Scott Kolins.

The third Battleworld debuted in Secret Wars #2 and was created by Jonathan Hickman and Esad Ribić.

Merged from dozens of fragments taken from many planets (including a suburb of Denver, Colorado from Earth) by the Beyonder, Battleworld was designed to provide an unfamiliar environment which nevertheless allowed all contestants to use their powers to the fullest. Many peoples, both alien and human, were brought along „for the ride“ by this method – it was because of this that Spider-Woman II was on Battleworld, as was Zsaji, the healer, who had brief romances with both the Human Torch of the Fantastic Four and Colossus of the X-Men.

In the aftermath of Secret Wars, the planet became infected with cosmic energy as a result of the Beyonder reclaiming his stolen power from Doctor Doom. This led to a „wish fulfillment“ phenomenon whereby force of will could alter reality such as repairing Captain America’s unbreakable shield or allowing Mister Fantastic to create a way to take them home extremely quickly. This is possibly either due to the Beyonder’s nature as an incomplete Cosmic Cube, which allows the wielder to alter reality around them by force of will, or was an aspect of the „heart’s desire“ promised by the Beyonders and granted to the default winners of the Secret Wars. All the heroes left the planet, except for Ben Grimm (who stayed behind because he was able to change to and from his human form while on the planet’s surface). Ben Grimm remained on the planet for a while in his own sideseries while She-Hulk took his place in the Fantastic Four, until eventually deciding to return home. Once he left, the planet had no more reason to exist, and so it broke apart once more. It is unknown if the pieces returned to their home planets or not, although the fragment of Colorado was ferried back to Earth with its citizens and the Secret Wars‘ villains by the Molecule Man.

A Battleworld appeared in the miniseries Beyond!. It was constructed by the Stranger posing as the Beyonder for the purposes of studying various combatants from Earth under the guise of battle. This faux Battleworld was destroyed at the end of the miniseries by the departure of the irate Stranger with Gravity holding it together long enough for his group to escape at the cost of his life. Although Gravity is later resurrected by Epoch as the new Protector of the Universe.

A third Battleworld appeared in the 2015 Secret Wars storyline, after the numerous incursions destroyed the Multiverse. The remains of several realities were all merged to form a new Battleworld with the planet having a roundish shape. All of these realities are known as domains and most have the ability to interact with each other. The Deadlands (which contains the Marvel Zombies), Perfection (which contains the Ultron Sentinels), and New Xandar (which contains the Annihilation Wave) are separated from the rest by the Shield because each contains threats that if loosed would destroy the other domains. This new Battleworld was created by its ruler Doctor Doom (who is worshipped as its deity God Emperor Doom) after he and Doctor Strange went to the Beyonders to stop an incursion of their reality. Although Doctor Strange didn’t kill the Beyonders during the confrontation, Doctor Doom appears to do so by using a secret weapon, actually thousands of Molecule Man, that allowed Doom to take the Beyonders‘ power as his own and incorporated the remnants of the realities destroyed by the incursions to create his own image of Battleworld with Strange unable to do anything else but to follow his words.

Each of Battleworld’s domains is ruled by an appointed „Baron“ or a „Baroness.“ The borders of each Battleworld domain are clearly defined and travel between different domains is discouraged, as it requires special dispensation from the local Baron or from Doom himself. Battleworld is enforced by the Thor Corps who serve as Battleworld’s police force who answer to God Emperor Doom. Battleworld is orbited by a small Sun, in fact the Human Torch, consigned to the role for acting against Doctor Doom, and Knowhere, that acts as Battleworld’s moon. Besides these two and Battleworld itself, there were originally no more celestial bodies in its universe, until Singularity, a mysterious young girl who actually represents a pocket universe that gained sentience during the multiversal collapse, appears to give her life to save the citizens of Arcadia from a horde of Zombies which made the stars appear in the sky.

This Battleworld would eventually collapse after God Emperor Doom’s Beyonders‘ power was transferred to someone more worthy (Reed Richards) who rectified the artificial reality.

As part of the All-New, All-Different Marvel event, it’s revealed that the reality where Battleworld was fashioned was identified as Earth-15513 and became a distorted portion of time and space after the destruction of the planet, however due to Battleworld’s reality having being the epicenter of this Multiversal renewal, it became rich in a substance known as Iso-8, a material identified as the byproduct of creation itself. When the Elders of the Universe of the restored Earth-616 realized that the Multiverse had endured a death and a rebirth, the Collector and Grandmaster discovered the remnants of Battleworld and resolved to fight for the possession of the Iso-8 and used the broken shell as the arena (known as Battlerealm) for their Contest of Champions, a competition where several individuals, taken from Battleworld and the reborn Multiverse, fought to the death on behalf of each Elder. The highest prize was the Iso-Sphere which contained within the Power Primordial, the concentrated and most powerful form of the Iso-8. After assuming control of the Power Primordial that the Grandmaster and Collector were competing for, the Battleworld version of Maestro recreates Battleworld to its previous form as he had previously vowed that he would become the God-King of Battleworld. In order to combat the remaining players, Maestro summoned the remnants of the Avengers and Thunderbolts from an alternate reality where Iron Man became President of the United States after winning the superhuman civil war as well as summoning Sentry of Earth-1611 in order to deal with the remaining Contest of Champions competitors. When the Iso-Sphere was stolen from Maestro by Outlaw, he used its power to banish Maestro away from Battleworld and teleport the contestants to wherever they wanted to be. As a consequence of Outlaw wishing that the Contest of Champions to end, the Iso-Sphere shattered. A group of the contestants decided to remain in Battleworld forming the Civil Warriors in order to guard the Iso-8 and the shards of the Iso-Sphere so they wouldn’t fall into the wrong hands.

The following is a list of the domains and the Marvel Comics event titles that are their basis or reimagining as fully revealed on Marvel Comics‘ Interactive Battleworld map in Secret Wars #2:

Элленберг (Вюртемберг)

Элленберг (нем. Ellenberg) — коммуна в Германии, в земле Баден-Вюртемберг.

Подчиняется административному округу Штутгарт. Входит в состав района Восточный Альб. Население составляет 1694 человека (на 31 декабря 2010 года). Занимает площадь 30,17 км². Официальный код — 08 1 36 018.

Аален | Абтсгмюнд | Адельмансфельден | Бартоломе | Бёбинген-на-Ремсе | Бопфинген | Вальдштеттен | Вестаузен | Вёрт | Гёггинген | Гшвенд | Дурланген | Иггинген | Кирхгайм-на-Рисе | Лайнцелль | Лаухгайм | Лорх | Мёгглинген | Мутланген | Нересхайм | Нойлер | Обергрёнинген | Оберкохен | Райнау | Рисбюрг | Розенберг | Руппертсхофен | Танхаузен | Теферрот | Унтершнайдхайм | Хойбах | Хойхлинген | Хюттлинген | Швебиш-Гмюнд | Шехинген | Шпрайтбах | Штёдтлен | Элленберг | Эльванген | Эссинген | Эшах | Ягстцелль

Joe McPhee

Joe McPhee (* 3. November 1939 in Miami, Florida) ist ein afro-amerikanischer Jazzmusiker. Er spielt Trompete, Posaune und verschiedene Saxophone.

Joe McPhee spielte schon mit acht Jahren Trompete, als er Unterricht von seinem Vater erhielt. Später spielte er in der Highschool-Band und während seiner US-Army Zeit in Deutschland in einer Militärkapelle. Seine Karriere begann in den 1960er Jahren unter anderem in Ensembles von Don Cherry. Seine erste Schallplatten-Einspielung entstand 1967 mit Clifford Thornton, „Freedom and Unity“. Ab Ende der 1960er Jahre nahm er auf Craig Johnsons CjR-Label eine Reihe von Alben auf, wie „Underground Railroad“ 1969, „Nation Time“ 1970, „Trinity“ 1971 und „Pieces of Light“ 1974.

Ab Mitte der 1970er Jahre wurde er mit einer Reihe aufsehenerregender Einspielungen in Europa bekannt, die das Schweizer Label HatHut Records von Werner X. Uehlinger mit ihm aufnahm, wie das Album „Tenor“ im Jahre 1976. In dieser Zeit lebte McPhee in Europa und arbeitete mit dem aus Marseille stammenden Gitarristen Raymond Boni und dem Saxophonisten André Jaume zusammen, die auf seinen Alben „Old Eyes & Mysteries“ (1979/1980) und „Topology“ (1991) mitwirkten. 1991 entstand gemeinsam das Album „Impressions of Jimmy Giuffre“.

Seit den 1990er Jahren arbeitete McPhee in verschiedenen Kooperationen mit der jüngeren Generation von Musikern aus Chicago zusammen und nahm eine Reihe von Alben für das Avantgarde-Label CIMP auf. Er spielte u. a. mit Musikern wie Frank Lowe, Dominic Duval, Jay Rosen, Ken Vandermark, Peter Brötzmann und Evan Parker. Bis 2007 hat er an die 100 Tonträgereinspielungen unter seinem Namen veröffentlicht. Aktuell bildet er mit Fred Lonberg-Holm am Cello und Michael Zerang am Schlagwerk das Survival Unit Trio.

Zusammen mit Roy Campbell, William Parker und Warren Smith spielt er in dem Projekt A Tribute to Albert Ayler.


Runecraft Ltd was a software design and development studio, specializing in brand-led video games. Runecraft’s clients included US publishers such as Hasbro, Mattel, Interplay, Activision, Crave and Ripcord. The company was initially based in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire. The company was formed in April 1997 by Martin and Rodney Hooley. In the years following Runecraft rapidly expanded on the back of a number of successful projects including Spec Ops, Mat Hoffman’s Pro BMX, Caesar’s Palace, Scrabble and Barbie. Runecraft also developed the cancelled PlayStation port of Baldur’s Gate.

At its high point Runecraft had approximately 150 employees and satellite offices in Glasgow, Nottingham, Taunton and Leeds. It also had a small presence in the USA and Japan.

Runecraft later suffered from financial troubles, speculations and poor management, which later led to the company collapsing in 2003. BBC Multimedia picked up some of the pieces to release the failed FightBox game in 2003.

Spigelia genuflexa

Spigelia genuflexa is a species of annual herb of the family Loganiaceae from Bahia state, Brazil, which was described in 2011. It is unusual in that the stems bend down after flowering to deposit the seeds in the soil (geocarpy).

Spigelia genuflexa shows two growth forms. In one, inflorescences are produced after the first three pairs of leaves, when the plant is around 1 centimetre (0.4 in) tall; in the other, four or five pairs of leaves precede the inflorescence, by which time the plant is 10–25 cm (4–10 in) tall. The leaves are oppositely arranged, 6–20 mm (0.24–0.79 in) long and 2–5 mm (0.08–0.20 in) wide, and elliptic to ovate in shape. The inflorescences are composed of up to 7 flowers, and the corollas of the flowers are 4–8 mm (0.16–0.31 in) long. The stems are somewhat red-coloured, and have 4 to 6 prominent ribs running down from the leaf bases.

Spigelia genuflexa grows in residual stands of Atlantic forest in the Rio do Negro valley in Bahia state (), at an altitude of 150 metres (490 ft), and about 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the Atlantic coast. It flowers during the rainy season, and almost disappears during the dry season. It is able to self-pollinate, with anthesis lasting less than a day. After pollination, the plant stem bends, and in the lower growth form, deposits the seeds in the soil; the taller growth form remains some distance above the soil surface.

Spigelia genuflexa was discovered on land owned by Alex Popovkin in 2009, by Popovkin’s „house help“ José Carlos Mendes Santos. The specific epithet genuflexa is a reference to the plant’s tendency to bend down after flowering, from the Latin genuflexus (cf. genuflexion). The authors proposed that the species should be listed as Data Deficient according to the criteria of the IUCN Red List. Popovkin is a Russian emigre and amateur botanist who has fulfilled a long-held dream to study plants in the tropics. It is one of sixty species which make up the poorly-studied Neotropical genus Spigelia, but does not appear particularly close to any other species.

Honda of America Mfg.

Die Honda of America Mfg., Inc. (die Abkürzung Mfg steht für Manufacturing, dt. Herstellung) ist eine im Marysville, Ohio ansässige Tochtergesellschaft der japanischen Honda Giken Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha. Das Unternehmen wurde im Februar 1978 gegründet und ist neben der Montage von Automobilen auch als Motorenhersteller tätig. Die eigene Produktion von Motorrädern wurde unterdessen aufgegeben. Insgesamt arbeiten etwa 9200 Arbeitnehmer in drei, ehemals vier, Niederlassungen für das Unternehmen.

Das in Marysville befindliche Hauptwerk, welches im November 1982 seine Arbeit aufnahm, wird aufgrund seines Standorts auch oftmals als Marysville Auto Plant bezeichnet. Etwa 4400 Arbeitnehmer werden hier beschäftigt. Für die Errichtung des Werkes hatte Honda eine Summe von 4 Milliarden US-Dollar investiert. Das Firmengelände umfasst derzeit eine Fläche von 324.000 Quadratmeter. Rund 440.000 Fahrzeuge werden hier jährlich für den nordamerikanischen Markt zusammengebaut. Neben Honda werden hier auch Modelle der Luxus-Marke Acura komplettiert.

Das erste Modell, das in Marysville gebaut wurde, war der Honda Accord, der hier als Sedan, Wagon, Hatchback wie auch als Coupé vom Band rollte. Baugleich etablierte Honda als Luxusmodell dann den Acura Vigor, gefolgt von Acura CL und dem Acura TL. Seit wenigen Jahren wird hier auch der Acura RDX zusammengebaut. Der Accord wurde im Jahre 2008 weitgehend in andere Werke ausgelagert, sodass lediglich noch das Coupé-Modell ein Produkt des Werkes ist.

Bereits im Jahre 1978 hatte Honda in Marysville mit der sogenannten Marysville Motorcycle Plant seine erste lokale Niederlassung geschaffen und widmete sich dort der Herstellung von Motorrädern. Mit der Gründung des neuen Unternehmens gliederte man das bestehende Werk einfach dort mit ein. Hergestellt wurden hier lange Zeit die beiden Modelle Honda Gold Wing sowie der Honda Magna. Im Frühling des Jahres 2009 verlegte Honda die Motorradproduktion für die nordamerikanischen Märkte allerdings nach Japan. Etwa 450 Arbeitnehmer verloren durch diese Verlagerung ihren Arbeitsplatz.

Die zweite Niederlassung errichtete das Unternehmen dann Mitte der Achtziger Jahre mit einer Investition von 1,7 Milliarden US-Dollar in der Kleinstadt Anna. Auf dem 162.000 Quadratmeter großen Gelände haben 2400 Menschen ihren Arbeitsplatz. Hergestellt werden hier Vierzylinder- und V6-Motoren für verschiedene Fahrzeugmodelle. Aber auch Antriebswellen, Kurbelwellen, Bremssysteme, Nockenwellen und Zylinderlaufbuchsen werden in Anna produziert. Jährlich produziert das Werk 1.180.000 Motoren für den lokalen und die umliegenden Märkte.

Das zweite Automobilwerk des Unternehmens wurde mit einer Investition von 1,1 Milliarden US-Dollar in East Liberty errichtet. In dem Werk werden zirka 2400 Arbeitnehmer beschäftigt. Die Arbeit wurde im Dezember 1989 aufgenommen. Das Firmengelände hier umfasst eine Fläche von 171.000 Quadratmeter. Das Hauptprodukt des Werkes ist der Honda Civic. Im Jahre 2002 fügte Honda dann den Honda Element in das Programm ein, der hier sowohl als Linkslenker wie auch mit Rechtslenkung für den Exportmarkt gebaut wird. Erst 2007 kamen mit dem Honda CR-V und dem Honda FCX Clarity zwei weitere Modelle hinzu. Das neueste Modell des Werkes ist allerdings der 2009 eingeführte Honda Accord Crosstour.

Innerhalb der Fahrzeug-Identifikationsnummer benutzt das Werk den Welt-Herstellercode 1HG für Personenkraftwagen und 5J6 für Sport Utility Vehicles und Brennstoffzellenfahrzeuge. Als Werkscode ist der Buchstabe A für Marysville und L für East Liberty in Verwendung. Für die Motorräder aus Marysville dagegen war der Welt-Herstellercode 1HF in Benutzung. Für die Fahrzeuge der Marke Acura wird der Welt-Herstellercode 19U verwendet.

Pertes de l’Ain

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Géolocalisation sur la carte : Jura

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Franche-Comté

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Les pertes de l’Ain de la commune de Bourg-de-Sirod, dans le Jura (massif du Jura), en Franche-Comté, sont une gorge / perte (hydrologie) très étroite d’environ 2 m de large, pour 100 m de long, et 12 à 15 m de profondeur, dans laquelle s’engouffre l’Ain, avant de rejaillir, après un cheminement souterrain d’environ 15 m, dans une vasque qui déborde en cascade de 17 m de large.

L’Ain, prend sa source sous forme d’exsurgence, au fond d’une combe, près de Nozeroy, au sud des villages de Conte (Jura) et La Favière, à 680 m d’altitude. Elle parcourir 190 km à travers le massif du Jura avant de se jeter dans le Rhône à Saint-Maurice-de-Gourdans à quelques km de Lyon.




Il y a dix millions d’années (Miocène), à 10 km en aval de sa source, l’Ain s’enfonce dans une fissure entre le plateau de Nozeroy et celui de Champagnole. Elle y creuse une galerie souterraine parfois d’une largeur inférieure à 2 m (les pertes) débouchant au niveau des actuelles anciennes forges de Bourg-de-Sirod.

Gorge profonde escarpée


Amas rocheux effondré

Centrale hydraulique EDF de Bourg-de-Sirod

Au fil des millénaires, à force d’érosion, la voûte de cette galerie calcaire s’effondre en amas rocheux, dont il reste des vestiges éparses, et dont une bonne partie a été déblayée par les crues de cette rivière de montagne qui connait de très importantes fluctuations saisonnières.

À partir du XIVe siècle la cascade alimente en énergie hydraulique des forges jusqu’en 1920, puis une centrale électrique à énergie hydraulique jusqu’à ce jour.

Au départ des anciennes Forges de la commune de Bourg-de-Sirod, un sentier de randonnée circulaire aménagé sous bois, d’une heure de marche, fait le tour des pertes, en partie bordée de grands épicéas, de gours, et d’une tufière remarquable.

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